- 5.9–6.7 in
- 10.2–10.6 in
- 0.8–0.9 oz
- Two-barred Crossbill (British)
- Bec-croisé à Ailes Blances (French)
- Pico Cruzado (Spanish)
- Individual White-winged Crossbills can eat up to 3,000 conifer seeds each day.
- Breeding of the White-winged Crossbill is opportunistic and can occur throughout the year whenever food is sufficient for the female to form eggs and raise young. The species has been recorded breeding in all 12 months.
- White-winged Crossbills with lower mandibles crossing to the right are approximately three times more common than those with lower mandibles crossing to the left.
- Adult White-winged Crossbills change (molt) their feathers once each year, usually in the autumn. The red feathers of the male have unpigmented barbules on the surface that mask the red and make the bird appear pink at first in the fall. As these barbules wear off the bright red shows through, making the spring and summer male brilliantly colored.
- The Hispaniolan Crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) used to be considered a subspecies of the White-winged Crossbill. It is found only in the pine forests of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Coniferous forests, especially where large crops of spruce and tamarack cones can be found.
Conifer seeds, especially spruce and tamarack.
- Clutch Size
- 2–5 eggs
- Egg Description
- Bluish green to white with dark spots or blotches around large end.
- Condition at Hatching
- Helpless and naked.
Open cup of twigs, grass stems, lichens or birch bark; lined with rootlets, lichen, bark shreds, hair, and cocoons. Well concealed in dense cover on branches of coniferous tree.
Hangs on cones and extracts seeds with oddly-shaped bill. Feeds in flocks. Takes grit and salt from roads
White-winged Crossbill populations are difficult to estimate as they can be abundant in some areas in some years, but absent the next. It appears that though populations may be increasing in some areas, in other places there are declines. Overall populations appear to have been stable between 1966 and 2015, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 50 million with 21% spending part of the year in the U.S., and 42% in Canada. The species rates a 7 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score and is not on the 2016 State of North America's Birds' Watch List.
- Benkman C. W. 1992. White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera). In The Birds of North America, No. 27 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union.
- North American Bird Conservation Initiative. 2016. The State of North
America’s Birds 2016. Environment and Climate Change Canada: Ottawa, Ontario.
- Partners in Flight. 2012. Species assessment database.
- Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, J.E. Fallon, K.L. Pardieck, D.J. Ziolkowski, Jr., and W.A. Link. 2016. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015, Version 01.30.2015. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD.