Prothonotary Warbler

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Prothonotary Warbler

Protonotaria citrea
  • ORDER: Passeriformes
  • FAMILY: Parulidae
Basic Description

The brilliant Prothonotary Warbler bounces along branches like a golden flashlight in the dim understory of swampy woodlands. This golden ray of light is unique among warblers with its beady black eye and blue-gray wings. It is also one of two warblers that build their nests in holes in standing dead trees. Often called a "swamp warbler" in the southeast, it also occurs surprisingly far to the north along rivers. Its population is declining, due to loss of forested wetlands in the U.S. and mangroves on its wintering grounds.

More ID Info
image of range map for Prothonotary WarblerRange map provided by Birds of North AmericaExplore Maps

Find This Bird

Finding a Prothonotary Warbler means finding the right habitat. They’re most numerous in the Southeast, where you may find them in swamps and bottomland forests. But they also use forests along rivers such as the Mississippi, so they occur farther north than you might expect in Wisconsin and all the way north to New Hampshire along other rivers. Once you find the right spot, head towards water and start looking for a bright yellow bird in the understory. They tend to stay low in the forest and often forage above water and along shorelines. These bright yellow birds are conspicuous, and their loud ringing song can help guide you to them even before you see them. The best times to look for them in the U.S. are from April–July.

Other Names
  • Reinita Protonotaria (Spanish)
  • Paruline orangée (French)

Backyard Tips

If you live in the Southeast near forested wetlands or water a nest box may attract a breeding pair. Attach a guard to keep predators from raiding eggs and young. Find out more about nest boxes on our All About Birdhouses site, including plans for building a nest box of the appropriate size for a Prothonotary Warbler.

  • Cool Facts