- Paruline orangée (French)
- Chipe dorado, Reinita Calecidorada (Spanish)
- The Prothonotary Warbler is one of only two warbler species that nest in cavities. (Lucy's Warbler is the other.)
- Go here to take a look at what goes on inside a Prothonotary Warbler nest, through the help of a Nest Box Cam provided by The Birdhouse Network at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
- The name "Prothonotary" refers to clerks in the Roman Catholic church, whose robes were bright yellow.
- The oldest recorded Prothonotary Warbler was a male, and at least 8 years, 1 month old when he was identified by his band in Ontario.
Prothonotary Warblers breed in wooded swamps and other bottomland forests. Characteristic tree species include willows, sweet gum, willow oak, black gum, tupelo, bald cypress, elms, and river birch. On their wintering grounds Prothonotary Warblers are abundant in mangrove forests.
Prothonotary Warblers feed on butterflies, moths, flies, beetles, mayflies, and spiders throughout the year. They also eat mollusks and isopods outside of the breeding season, and may even supplement their diet with seeds, fruit, or nectar.
- Clutch Size
- 3–7 eggs
- Number of Broods
- 1-3 broods
- Egg Length
- 0.7–0.7 in
- Egg Width
- 0.6–0.6 in
- Incubation Period
- 12–14 days
- Nestling Period
- 9–10 days
- Egg Description
- White spotted with rust-brown to lavender.
- Condition at Hatching
- Helpless, eyes closed, with minimal down.
Males select at least one cavity and place moss inside prior to attracting a mate. Females then build the remainder of the nest with a foundation of mosses or liverwort. The nest cup is made of rootlets, plant down, grape plants, or cypress bark lined with grasses, sedges, tendrils, rootlets, leaves, petioles, poison ivy, and even fishing line. The nest cup is about 2 inches wide.
Prothonotary Warblers place their nests in low cavities such as old Downy Woodpecker holes. Bald cypress, willows, and sweet gum are regular trees used for nesting and cavities tend to be in trees located near or over standing water. These warblers sometimes use bird boxes, gourds, and cypress knees for nesting.
During the breeding season male Prothonotary Warblers defend territories by chasing away intruders or snapping their bills. Females may enter into bill-snapping disputes with other females as well. In flight they tend to stay below the canopy, but some birds also fly above trees when singing a lengthy song. Prothonotary Warblers forage by hopping in vegetation or on the ground and sometimes climb on tree trunks. When courting, the male flies close to the female and both birds chip softly. The male shows off possible nest cavities, entering and exiting them. Once a pair forms, the male guards the female while she is building the nest and laying eggs.
Prothonotary Warbler populations are declined by 42% across their range between 1966 and 2014, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 1.6 million with 100% spending part of the year in the U.S., and 26% wintering in Mexico. They rate the species a 14 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Prothonotary Warbler is a U.S-Canada Stewardship species, and is on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List, which lists bird species that are at risk of becoming threatened or endangered without conservation action. Breeding populations of these warblers are highly localized because of the extreme habitat specificity needed by these birds. This makes Prothonotary Warblers vulnerable to habitat destruction. The species is considered endangered in Canada.