- 5.5–5.9 in
- 0.5 oz
- Paruline de Kirtland (French)
- The Kirtland's Warbler requires areas with small jack pines for nesting. The jack pine requires fire to open its cones and spread its seeds. The warbler first appears in an area about six years after a fire when the new growth is dense and is about 1.5 to 2.0 meters (5.0-6.5 feet) high. After about 15 years, when the trees are 3.0 to 5.0 meters (10.0 to 16.5 feet) high, the warbler leaves the area.
- The female Kirtland's Warbler is more selective than the male in her choice of habitat, and the best areas attract more females than males. The last residents of a tract that is getting too old are always unmated males.
- The oldest recorded Kirtland's warbler was a male and at least 9 years old when he was recaptured during banding operations in Michigan in 1949.
Breeds in scrubby jack pine. Winters in low scrub, thickets, and (rarely) deciduous woodland.
Insects and small fruits.
- Clutch Size
- 3–6 eggs
- Egg Description
- White or buff, with varying amounts of fine brown spots concentrated around large end.
- Condition at Hatching
Open cup of grass, sedges, pine needles, and pieces of leaves, lined with rootlets, plant fibers, and hair. Placed in depression in ground, often with overhanging tuft of grass.
Forages on ground and in midlevels of small trees, gleaning insects.
Kirtland's Warbler is a U.S. federally Endangered species and is on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List, which lists bird species that are at risk of becoming threatened or endangered without conservation action. The species is also listed as near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 3,600 birds, with 100% breeding in the U.S. The species rates a 20 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Kirtland's Warbler is a Tri-National Concern species and a U.S.-Canada Stewardship species. Fire suppression has led to a decline in suitable habitat for nesting. Nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbird has caused further population declines. Extensive measures are currently being taken to provide adequate nesting habitat for Kirtland's Warbler, and to control cowbird numbers.
- Mayfield, Harold F. 1992. Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). In The Birds of North America, No. 19 (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union.
- BirdLife International. 2012. Dendroica kirtlandii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22721722A39850126
- North American Bird Conservation Initiative, U.S. Committee. 2014. State of the Birds 2014 Report. U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, DC.
- Partners in Flight. 2012. Species assessment database.
- U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, ECOS-Environmental Conservation Online System, Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii).
- USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2015. Longevity records of North American Birds.