Audubon's Oriole Life History


Habitat Open WoodlandsUses a variety of habitats, including riparian forest, thorn forest, and live oak forest in Texas, and humid tropical forests in Mexico.Back to top


Food InsectsInsects, spiders, fruits. Sunflower seed at bird feeders.Back to top


Nest Placement

Nest Tree

Nest Description

Nest a slightly hanging basket of woven palmetto fibers or grasses, lined with soft grasses or hair. Placed in trees, often quite low to ground, among twigs and leaves on central portion of limbs.

Nesting Facts
Clutch Size:3-5 eggs
Egg Description:Pale bluish white, with dark streaks and blotches, heaviest at large end.
Condition at Hatching:Helpless.
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Behavior Foliage GleanerForages in dense foliage, often near forest clearing. Inserts bill into dead wood or plants and opens it forcefully to expose insects hiding inside. Uses bird feeders.Back to top


Conservation Restricted RangePartners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of Audubon's Oriole at 200,000, with 2% living in the U.S., and 98% in Mexico. They rate a 14 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score and are on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List, which lists bird species that are at risk of becoming threatened or endangered without conservation action. This species has declined in Texas. Vulnerability to habitat loss and fragmentation (particularly cowbird parasitism) suggests that special measures may be needed to maintain some populations.Back to top


Flood, Nancy J., James D. Rising and Timothy Brush. (2002). Audubon's Oriole (Icterus graduacauda), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

North American Bird Conservation Initiative. (2014). The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, USA.

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