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White-crowned Pigeon Life History


Habitat ForestsNests in coastal and island forests, including mangroves, and feeds in forests with a wide variety of fruit-bearing trees.Back to top


Food FruitFruits and berries of more than 50 species of trees; sometimes wasps and flies.Back to top


Nest Placement

Nest Tree

Nest Description

Platform of sticks, lined with smaller twigs, placed in trees, often above water.

Nesting Facts

Clutch Size:1-3 eggs
Egg Description:White.
Condition at Hatching:Helpless, with long orange-yellow down.
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Behavior Foliage GleanerUsually forages in trees; may hang upside down to pick fruit. Appears to prefer ripe fruits. Feeds singly, in pairs, in small groups, or, where food resources are concentrated, in large aggregations of more than 1,000 individuals.Back to top


Conservation DecliningThe White-crowned Pigeon is threatened throughout its range. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 550,000 with 1% living in the U.S., and 4% in Mexico. They are a Tri-National Concern Species and rate a 15 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. They are on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List, which lists bird species that are at risk of becoming threatened or endangered without conservation action. Hunted for food in late 19th century and early 20th century in Florida. Now protected in Florida, but still hunted extensively in Caribbean countries. Habitat availability is crucial for the species' nesting success; mangrove forests where the species breeds in Florida are all within national parks and refuges. If in the direct path of severe hurricanes, significant portions of habitat in Florida could be destroyed for years. Loss of breeding and feeding habitats remain a concern throughout the range of the species.Back to top


Bancroft, G. Thomas, G. Thomas and Reed Bowman. (2001). White-crowned Pigeon (Patagioenas leucocephala), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. (2020). Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2020. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2020.

North American Bird Conservation Initiative. (2014). The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA.

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