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King Rail

Rallus elegans ORDER: GRUIFORMES FAMILY: RALLIDAE

IUCN Conservation Status: Near Threatened

A large rail of freshwater marshes, the King Rail has declined alarmingly in much of its range over the last 40 years.

At a GlanceHelp

Measurements
Both Sexes
Length
15–18.9 in
38–48 cm
Wingspan
19.7 in
50 cm
Weight
10.8–13.1 oz
305–370 g
Other Names
  • Râle élégant (French)
  • Rascón real, Gallina de agua (Spanish)

Cool Facts

  • The adult King Rail molts completely after nesting and is flightless for nearly a month.
  • The King Rail usually gets its food in aquatic habitats, but will feed on insects away from water. When it catches food on land, it often takes the item to water and dunks it before eating it.
  • The male King Rail presents food to its mate during courtship. One male was observed to catch seven crayfish within two hours, and he presented five of those to his mate.

Habitat


Marsh

Freshwater and brackish marshes, rice fields.

Food


Insects

Crustaceans, especially crayfish, aquatic insects, and small fish.

Nesting

Nesting Facts
Clutch Size
6–14 eggs
Egg Description
Pale buff with a few irregular brown spots.
Condition at Hatching
Covered with black down, leave nest within one day. Fed by parents.
Nest Description

A round elevated platform of grasses, sedges, or rushes, with a saucer-shaped depression, usually with a round or cone-shaped canopy and a ramp. Placed in clump of grass just above water.

Nest Placement

Ground

Behavior


Probing

Forages mostly during the day, in areas concealed by plant cover or in comparatively open areas where it blends with its surroundings and is only a few steps from cover. In tidal areas, most feeding is at low tide. Generally forages in water so shallow that only the bill, or part of it, disappears beneath the surface.

Conservation

status via IUCN

Near Threatened

King Rail declined by almost 5% per year between 1966 and 2014, resulting in a cumulative decline of 91%, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan does not list a population estimate, but rates the species around a 16 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, and lists it as a Species of High Concern. King Rail is on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List, which lists bird species that are at risk of becoming threatened or endangered without conservation action. The IUCN Red List lists it as a Near Threatened species. Declines in populations are related to the loss of wetlands across North America. Pesticides may also play a role in the bird's decline, and King Rail are often killed by cars when moving around during breeding season.

Credits

Range Map Help

King Rail Range Map
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bird image Blue-winged Warbler by Brian Sullivan

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