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Red-cockaded Woodpecker

Picoides borealis ORDER: PICIFORMES FAMILY: PICIDAE

IUCN Conservation Status: Near Threatened

The Red-cockaded Woodpecker is a habitat specialist of the Southeast’s once-vast longleaf pine stands. Its habitat—old pines with very little understory—was shaped by the region’s frequent lightning fires. They also occur in stands of loblolly, slash, and other pine species. The birds dig cavities in living pines softened by heartwood rot. They live in family groups that work together to dig cavities and raise young. The species declined drastically as its original habitat was cut down, and the species was listed as Endangered in 1970.

At a GlanceHelp

Measurements
Both Sexes
Length
7.9–9.1 in
20–23 cm
Wingspan
14.2 in
36 cm
Weight
1.5–1.8 oz
42–52 g
Other Names
  • Pic à face blanche (French)
  • Carpintero cara blanco (Spanish)

Cool Facts

  • The Red-cockaded Woodpecker roosts and nests only in live pines, usually ones infected with red heart fungus. The disease softens the wood and makes cavity excavation easier. The birds also peck holes in the bark around the nest entrance, causing the tree to leak pitch that helps keep tree climbing snakes away.
  • The cavity may extend upward as well as downward, often far enough up for a bird to take refuge from a predator reaching in and down. The exact shape of the cavity follows the contour of the heartrot (see above).
  • The Red-cockaded Woodpecker is a cooperative breeder: it lives in small family groups of one breeding pair and several helpers. The extra birds usually are sons from previous breeding seasons (daughters rarely stay with their parents). The helpers assist in incubation, brooding, and feeding.
  • A family of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers excavates a number of cavities within their territory. It may take two years or more to completely dig out one cavity. The breeding male roosts in the best cavity, usually the one most recently created and with the heaviest sap flow. The eggs are laid in this cavity, and the male incubates them at night.
  • A cockade is a ribbon or ornament worn on a hat. The "cockade" of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker is the tiny red line on the side of the head of the male. It may be hidden and is very difficult to see in the field.
  • The oldest Red-Cockaded Woodpecker on record, a female in North Carolina, was at least 16 years, 1 month old when found in 1999.

Habitat


Open Woodland

The Red-cockaded Woodpecker evolved in old-growth, open-understory pine forests of the southeastern United States—particularly in longleaf pine—that was naturally maintained by lightning-started fires every one to five years. This habitat was once extensive, but almost disappeared during logging in the twentieth century. The birds are now often found in mature loblolly, slash, shortleaf, Virginia, pond, and pitch pine forests. The woodpeckers are sometimes found in younger stands or stands with dense hardwood encroachment. In southern Florida, they can occur in scattered slash pines mixed with bald cypress and grassy wetlands. If the forest surrounding their territory is cut down, they may persist for a short time but leave within six to ten years.

Food


Insects

Red-cockaded Woodpeckers eat the adults, larvae, and eggs of insects and other arthropods found on and under the bark of pine trees. These include ants, termites, southern pine beetles, other bark beetles, wood roaches, and centipedes. To a lesser extent they also eat seeds and fruits, including pine seeds, wild cherries, pokeberries, grapes, magnolia berries, poison ivy berries, blueberries, and blackgum berries. Males forage mostly on the branches and upper tree trunks, while females forage mostly on the trunk below the lowest branches. About 90% of foraging is on pines, with 10% on hardwood trees. They favor large pines over small ones, probably because the looser plates of bark (and larger surface area) harbor more prey. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers usually forage in groups and may be joined by mixed flocks of songbirds, such as Eastern Bluebirds and Brown-headed Nuthatches, especially in winter. They use their bills to pull or flick the bark aside, and sometimes use their feet to pull bark (more often seen in females than males). They also probe crevices, branch stubs, needle clusters, cone clusters, and rotting wood. In some regions they may also forage in cornfields on corn earworms.

Nesting

Nesting Facts
Clutch Size
2–5 eggs
Number of Broods
1 broods
Egg Length
0.8–1 in
2.1–2.6 cm
Egg Width
0.7–0.7 in
1.7–1.9 cm
Incubation Period
10–11 days
Nestling Period
26–29 days
Egg Description
Shiny white.
Condition at Hatching
Naked and helpless.
Nest Description

Nest cavities vary in size and shape according to the contour of heartrot in the tree, and grow over time. The entrance measures 2–3 inches across, and the interior measures about 3-4 inches across at its widest. There is no nest but the cavity often has a lining of wood chips left from excavation.

Nest Placement

Cavity

The nest is placed in the breeding male’s roost cavity, which is usually the most recently excavated cavity among several roost cavities used by the extended family group. Nests are almost always in living pine trees in which the heartwood has been softened by red heart fungus. Recent cavities tend to have more pine resin flowing from holes the woodpeckers drill below the nest entrance. Cavities can be 100 feet or more off the ground and often face to the west or south.

Behavior


Bark Forager

Red-cockaded Woodpeckers excavate cavities in live pine trees for roosting and nesting. They dig tiny wells below each cavity that leak sap and deter rat snakes and other predators. They live in family groups of two to five adults, usually including only one female. Males have a very strong tendency to stay and breed in their home area, whereas females typically disperse during their first winter. They rarely form new groups, and when they do it usually is near established groups: a young male excavates a cavity at a new site while still roosting with his family group. The breeding pair is monogamous and often stays together for life. Nonbreeding birds help raise the breeding pair’s young and defend them from intruders. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers forage almost entirely in pine trees—using their tail as a springboard to hitch themselves along the trunk. They drink from water collected in leaves, needles, or cavities on branches. The home range of a family group can exceed 200 acres, though it is smaller when nestlings are present. Though they forage together, they typically sleep alone, each in its own cavity in a living pine. When no cavity is available, they may roost in a protected site such as beneath a tree limb. Cavities may be reused for decades.

Conservation

status via IUCN

Near Threatened

Once considered common in the southern U.S., Red-cockaded Woodpecker declined across its range by an average of over 3.3% per year between 1966 and 2014, resulting in a cumulative decline of 86%, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 15,000 individuals, with 100% living in the U.S. The species rates an 18 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Red-cockaded Woodpecker is on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List, which lists bird species that are at risk of becoming threatened or endangered without conservation action. Since 1970 it has been federally listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is listed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened. These birds have disappeared from several states, and most remaining large populations are on federal lands. Because the Red-cockaded Woodpecker depends on old growth southern pine forests for food and habitat, it has been vulnerable to clearcutting, forest fragmentation, conversion of longleaf pine forest to less favorable slash pine forest, and fire suppression. Family groups rarely colonize new areas, because of the time required for cavity excavation. Conservation measures include using metal plates to restrict the size of cavity entrances that have become too large to use, constructing artificial cavities, moving young females to groups lacking a breeding female, and—most importantly—habitat management that preserves large tracts of foraging habitat as well as trees suitable for roosting and nesting cavities.

Credits

Range Map Help

Red-cockaded Woodpecker Range Map
View dynamic map of eBird sightings

Migration

Nonmigratory.

Find This Bird

With much of this species’ original habitat lost to logging, your best bet for finding this species is in national wildlife refuges, national forests, and other federal preserves that can protect and manage large areas of habitat. Because the species is endangered, some known nesting areas may be off limits and bird watchers should respect those regulations. However, in places where public access is allowed, these birds’ nesting and foraging locations are well known and a quick chat with a ranger or visitor center manager can quickly point you in the right direction. You’ll want to be searching open stands of old pines with very little growth in the understory or subcanopy—if you find yourself in denser vegetation where you can’t easily see the pine trunks, chances are there won’t be any Red-cockaded Woodpeckers there. Nest and roost trees can be easy to spot because of sap flowing down the trunk near the cavities—although bear in mind that the birds typically have several such cavities in their territory.

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