Males have a large repertoire of songs made up of whistles, cackles, mews, catcalls, caw notes, chuckles, rattles, squawks, gurgles, and pops, which they repeat and string together with great variety. Songs of Western birds may be higher in pitch and more rapid than those of eastern birds. They sing in morning and evening (and even at night during the height of the breeding season), either concealed in thickets or exposed on prominent perches within their breeding territories.
They have a variety of calls, including a distinctive harsh scolding. Females also make a gargling growl when disturbed at the nest. Wintering males and females give a “chuck” call to defend winter territories.
Males produce a hollow, thumping sound during display flights, probably made with their wings. Females may also make this sound while flying, and may clap their bills with a soft, snapping sound when at the nest.