- 9.1–13.4 in
- 17.7 in
- 3.4–6 oz
- 17.7 in
- 3–5.5 oz
- Smaller, slenderer than Rock Pigeon
- Tourterelle triste (French)
- Huilota (Spanish)
- During the breeding season, you might see three Mourning Doves flying in tight formation, one after another. This is a form of social display. Typically the bird in the lead is the male of a mated pair. The second bird is an unmated male chasing his rival from the area where he hopes to nest. The third is the female of the mated pair, which seems to go along for the ride.
- Mourning Doves tend to feed busily on the ground, swallowing seeds and storing them in an enlargement of the esophagus called the crop. Once they’ve filled it (the record is 17,200 bluegrass seeds in a single crop!), they can fly to a safe perch to digest the meal.
- Mourning Doves eat roughly 12 to 20 percent of their body weight per day, or 71 calories on average.
- Perhaps one reason why Mourning Doves survive in the desert: they can drink brackish spring water (up to almost half the salinity of sea water) without becoming dehydrated the way humans would.
- The Mourning Dove is the most widespread and abundant game bird in North America. Every year hunters harvest more than 20 million, but the Mourning Dove remains one of our most abundant birds with a U.S. population estimated at 350 million.
- The oldest known Mourning Dove was a male, and at least 30 years, 4 months old when he was shot in Florida in 1998. He had been banded in Georgia in 1968.
Primarily a bird of open country, scattered trees, and woodland edges, but large numbers roost in woodlots during winter. Feeds on ground in grasslands, agricultural fields, backyards, and roadsides.
Seeds make up 99 percent of a Mourning Dove’s diet, including cultivated grains and even peanuts, as well as wild grasses, weeds, herbs, and occasionally berries. They sometimes eat snails. Mourning Doves eat roughly 12 to 20 percent of their body weight per day, or 71 calories on average.
- Clutch Size
- 2 eggs
- Number of Broods
- 1-6 broods
- Egg Length
- 1–1.2 in
- Egg Width
- 0.8–0.9 in
- Incubation Period
- 14 days
- Nestling Period
- 12–15 days
- Egg Description
- Unmarked, white.
- Condition at Hatching
- Helpless, eyes closed, sparsely covered in cream-colored down, unable to hold up head, dependent on adults for warmth.
A flimsy assembly of pine needles, twigs, and grass stems, unlined and with little insulation for the young. Over 2 to 4 days, the male carries twigs to the female, passing them to her while standing on her back; the female weaves them into a nest about 8 inches across. Mourning Doves sometimes reuse their own or other species’ nests.
Typically nests amid dense foliage on the branch of an evergreen, orchard tree, mesquite, cottonwood, or vine. Also quite commonly nests on the ground, particularly in the West. Unbothered by nesting around humans, Mourning Doves may even nest on gutters, eaves, or abandoned equipment.
© René Corado / WFVZ
© René Corado / WFVZ
Mourning Doves feed on the ground and in the open. They peck or push aside ground litter, but don’t scratch at the ground. Males have favorite “cooing perches” they defend from other males. Members of a pair preen each other with gentle nibbles around the neck as a pair-bonding ritual. Eventually, the pair will progress to grasping beaks and bobbing their heads up and down in unison.
Mourning Doves are common across the continent and generally have prospered as people settled the landscape, however populations declined by about 15% between 1966 and 2015, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates the global breeding population at 120 million with 81% spending some part of the year in the U.S., 19% in Mexico, and 5% in Canada. The species rates a 5 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Mourning Dove is not on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List. These birds are the continent's most popular game bird: hunters may shoot more than 20 million Mourning Doves each year. Because of the birds' popularity, game managers monitor their numbers to set hunting limits. Although Mourning Doves seem to do well in the face of hunting pressure, they also face the less visible problem of lead poisoning. Mourning Doves forage on the ground, and in heavily hunted areas they may wind up eating fallen lead shot (records show some doves have eaten up to 43 pellets). Studies have found this problem is worst around fields specifically planted to attract the doves, and that about 1 in 20 doves wind up eating lead.
- Otis, David L., John H. Schulz, David Miller, R. E. Mirarchi and T. S. Baskett. 2008. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura). In The Birds of North America, No. 117 (A. Poole, Ed.). The Birds of North America Online, Ithaca, New York.
- North American Bird Conservation Initiative, U.S. Committee. 2014. State of the Birds 2014 Report. U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, DC.
- Partners in Flight. 2012. Species assessment database.
- Raftovich, R.V., S.C. Chandler, and K.A. Wilkins. 2015. Migratory bird hunting activity and harvest during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 hunting seasons. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD.
- USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2015. Longevity records of North American Birds.
- USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2014. North American Breeding Bird Survey 1966–2014 Analysis.
Resident to long-distance migrant. Northern birds fly south thousands of miles (as far as southern Mexico); individuals that breed in central and southern U.S. move a few hundred miles or not at all.
Scatter seeds, particularly millet, on the ground or on platform feeders. Plant dense shrubs or evergreen trees in your yard to provide nesting sites. Keep your cats inside - birds that spend much of their time on the ground are particularly vulnerable to prowling cats. Find out more about what this bird likes to eat and what feeder is best by using the Project FeederWatch Common Feeder Birds bird list.
Consider putting up a nesting cone to attract a breeding pair. Make sure you put it up well before breeding season. Find out more about nest boxes and other ways to provide nesting structures on our Attract Birds pages. You'll find plans for building a nest box of the appropriate size on our All About Birdhouses site.
Find This Bird
Look for Mourning Doves on telephone wires and similar perches throughout your neighborhood, or keep an eye on patches of bare ground, where the birds gather to stock up on seeds and grit.
Mourning Doves add grace and movement to many urban and suburban settings. Keep track of your sightings – even in the heart of the city – as part of our Celebrate Urban Birds! program.
Download instructions for setting up a basket to attract nesting Mourning Doves (PDF)
If you know of a Mourning Dove nest, visit NestWatch to learn how to monitor it and report your observations
Top 10 Ways to Help Birds in Cities
Visit our section on how to set up a bird feeder. Then watch the birds and report your counts to Project FeederWatch.
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