- Smaller than a Spotted Towhee; larger than a Dark-eyed Junco.
- Bruant fauve (French)
- Chingolo zorruno (Spanish)
- The nineteenth century naturalist William Brewster was inspired by the rich song of breeding Fox Sparrows in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. “At all hours of the day,” he wrote, “in every kind of weather late into the brief summer, its voice rises among the evergreen woods filling the air with quivering, delicious melody, which at length dies softly, mingling with the soughing of the wind in the spruces, or drowned by the muffled roar of the surf beating against neighboring cliffs.”
- People have spotted individual Fox Sparrows in Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Germany, and Italy. Some of these vagrant birds probably made part of their transatlantic journey by ship, after touching down to rest on a vessel far from shore.
- Fox Sparrow fossils from the Pleistocene (about 11,000 years ago) have been found in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and at the La Brea tar pits in California.
- The oldest recorded Fox Sparrow was at least 10 years, 4 months old when it was recaptured and rereleased during banding operations in California in 2003, the same state where it had been banded.
Fox Sparrows breed in thickets and chaparral across northern North America and south along the western mountains. Each of the four main types of Fox Sparrow (see Regional Differences) has its own preferences when it comes to vegetation. “Red” Fox Sparrows live in scrubby, brushy woods and forest edges (containing black spruce, white spruce, balsam fir, tamarack, aspen, birch, willow, and alder) from Alaska to Newfoundland, reaching into the northwestern corner of Maine. They winter in densely thicketed habitats across eastern North America, from Newfoundland to Minnesota to Texas to Florida, and in small numbers farther west. “Sooty” Fox Sparrows breed in deciduous streamside thickets (with willow and blackberry) along coastal Alaska and British Columbia from the Aleutian Islands to Washington, and winter in chaparral farther south along the Pacific Coast. “Slate-colored” Fox Sparrows breed in dense riparian thickets (of alder, water birch, willows, currants, gooseberries, and rose) from central British Columbia south to Colorado, and winter in tall chaparral from California to New Mexico. “Large-billed” Fox Sparrows nest in brushy fields at high elevations (with green-leaf manzanita, mountain whitehorn, and bush chinquapin) from western Oregon south into California and western Nevada, wintering in chaparral farther south in California. During migration, Fox Sparrows forage in the leaf litter of open hardwood forests as well as swampy thickets.
Fox Sparrows forage on leaf litter and bare ground, usually under dense cover. During the breeding season they eat mainly insects—such as beetles, fly larvae, caterpillars, ants, bees, and scale insects. They find their prey with a characteristic “double-scratch” involving a hop forward and an immediate hop back, during which they simultaneously scratch both feet backwards through the leaf litter. (This foraging move is common among some sparrows and towhees.) They also eat other invertebrates (such as spiders, millipedes, and mollusks) along with seeds, fruits, or buds from plants such as strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, sedge, cinquefoil, buttonweed, serviceberry, pokeweed, red cedar, grape, witch hazel, ragweed, smartweed, and sorrel. During migration and winter, Fox Sparrows eat a more balanced mixture of plant and insect material.
- Clutch Size
- 2–5 eggs
- Number of Broods
- 1 broods
- Egg Length
- 0.8–0.9 in
- Egg Width
- 0.6–0.7 in
- Incubation Period
- 12–14 days
- Nestling Period
- 9–11 days
- Egg Description
- Pale bluish green, with bold splotches or cloudy markings of reddish brown.
- Condition at Hatching
- Helpless and downy.
Their nesting behavior is not well known, but the female probably builds the nest on her own in 2–3 days. One female completed a new nest and laid an egg between sunrise and sunset of a single day. Nests vary a lot in size, from a few inches across to more than a foot across. The outer wall is made of twigs, strips of bark, shredded wood, rotting wood, broom moss, coarse dry grass, moss, and lichens. The inner cup is often lined with fine grass, rootlets, hair from sheep, cows, or dogs, feathers, moss, and sometimes fishing line.
Fox Sparrows nest on the ground or in low crotches of bushes or trees. In Newfoundland they nest in or under conifers or among the roots of upturned stumps. In western North America, they nest in chaparral under dense, shrubby vegetation.
Fox Sparrows spend much of their time hopping on the ground and scratching though leaf litter as they forage for invertebrates. They rarely make long flights during their day-to-day activities. Within one day of arriving on the breeding grounds they establish territories of up to 2.5 acres in size, and they pair off with mates within a week. Outside of the breeding season, they usually spend their time alone or in small groups, and often associate with other sparrow species. Fox Sparrows are hunted by Merlins, Steller’s Jays and probably by other predatory birds; weasels, chipmunks, and snakes prey on nests. Parents will give a metallic chip and pretend to have a broken wing to lure potential predators (including people) away from their nests.
Fox Sparrows are numerous, but populations declined by about 51% between 1966 and 2015, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 20 million with 92% spending at least part of the year in the U.S., 62% in Canada, and 5% breeding in Mexico. The species rates an 8 out of 10 on the Continental Concern Score. Fox Sparrow is not on the 2016 State of North America's Birds' Watch List. It is a U.S.-Canada Stewardship species. Many Fox Sparrow nest in remote northern North America, and may be spared from human disturbance during the breeding period as these areas have few direct impacts from people. However, the distribution of Fox Sparrows has probably shifted because of logging and changes to forest fire regimes in the West. Both logging and forest fires create dense, shrubby regrowth that can serve as Fox Sparrow habitat.
Short- to long-distance migrant. All populations migrate, but migration distances are very variable. Fox Sparrows that nest in Alaska migrate at night to the southeastern United States (as far as Florida), regularly crossing large expanses of open water. Individuals that nest in the Sierra Nevada of California migrate short distances from high-altitude summer territories to lower elevations for winter.
Fox Sparrows tend to feed on the ground close to dense vegetation. They enjoy small seeds and many kinds of berries. They may scratch for fallen seeds underneath bird feeders, particularly if they are close to cover. Encouraging shrubs or berry bushes to grow at the edges of your yard, or keeping a brush pile, are good ways to provide places for Fox Sparrows to forage. Find out more about what this bird likes to eat and what feeder is best by using the Project FeederWatch Common Feeder Birds bird list.
Find This Bird
Fox Sparrows are common but retiring birds, so you may have to look carefully to spot one scratching in the leaf litter under a streamside thicket or forest edge tangle. Check a range map to know when you’re likely to see one (wintertime over much of the East and the southern Pacific Coast; summertime in Alaska, Canada, and western mountains). During the summer, in the appropriate habitat, you may hear a male singing his rich, whistling song; in winter look for them on the ground under bird feeders.