- 18.9–22.8 in
- 31.5 in
- 33.5–63.5 oz
- Velvet Scoter (British)
- Macreuse à ailes blanches (French)
- Negretta aliblanca (Spanish)
- Although the White-winged Scoter winters primarily along the coasts, small numbers winter on the eastern Great Lakes. Populations on the Great Lakes may have declined during the 1970s, but appear to be increasing in response to the invasion of the zebra mussel, a new and abundant food source.
- The White-winged Scoter often nests in association with gull breeding colonies. Although the gulls would happily eat the eggs and chicks of the scoter, the dense vegetation where the scoter nests keeps them safe.
- The White-winged Scoters found in North America and eastern Asia differ from those found in Europe in the structure of the bill and trachea of the male. The European "Velvet Scoter" male has only a slight swelling on the top of the bill, and the bill is yellow, not orange. The two forms sometimes are regarded as distinct species.
- The oldest recorded White-winged Scoter was a female, and at least 18 years, 1 month old when she was observed at a nest in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Breeds on large freshwater or brackish lakes and ponds. Winters in coastal estuaries, bays, and open coastline with shallow water over shellfish beds.
Mollusks (especially clams and mussels), crustaceans, and insects; occasionally aquatic plants and fish.
- Clutch Size
- 6–16 eggs
- Egg Description
- Creamy buff or light pink.
- Condition at Hatching
- Downy and eyes open. Leave nest soon after they dry. Feed themselves immediately.
Hollow in ground in dense cover away from water, lined with down and twigs.
Dives for prey on or near bottom.
- Brown, P. W., and L. H. Fredrickson. 1997. White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca). In The Birds of North America, No. 274 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
- North American Bird Conservation Initiative, U.S. Committee. 2014. State of the Birds 2014 Report. U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, DC.
- USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2015. Longevity records of North American Birds.