MacGillivray's Warbler Life History


Habitat Open WoodlandsClear-cuts in coniferous forest, mixed deciduous forest, and riparian areas and thickets. Requires dense understory.Back to top


Food InsectsInsects.Back to top


Nest Placement

Nest Shrub

Nest Description

An open cup of coarse grass and other plant fiber, placed at or near ground level under dense shrub cover.

Nesting Facts
Clutch Size:2-6 eggs
Egg Description:Creamy white, with variable tints and speckling.
Condition at Hatching:Helpless and naked.
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Behavior Foliage GleanerFeeds at or just above ground level. Usually gleans from low branches.Back to top


Conservation Low ConcernMacGillivray's Warbler populations declined by about 35% between 1966 and 2014, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a total breeding population of 12 million, with 43% spending some part of the year in the U.S., 84% in Mexico, and 56% breeding in Canada. The species rates an 11 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. MacGillivray's Warbler is not on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List. This warbler has a preference for cleared or regenerating land, and therefore has probably benefited from human land-use practices such as logging and mining.Back to top


North American Bird Conservation Initiative. (2014). The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

Pitocchelli, Jay. (2013). MacGillivray's Warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2013 (Version 1.30.15). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center (2014b). Available from

Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, USA.

Stephenson, T. and S. Whittle (2013). The Warbler Guide. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA.

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