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    Cooper's Hawk Life History

    Habitat

    Habitat ForestsCooper’s Hawks are forest and woodland birds, but our leafy suburbs seem nearly as good. These lanky hawks are a regular sight in parks, quiet neighborhoods, over fields, at backyard feeders, and even along busy streets if there are trees around.Back to top

    Food

    Food BirdsCooper’s Hawks mainly eat birds. Small birds are safer around Cooper’s Hawks than medium-sized birds: studies list European Starlings, Mourning Doves, and Rock Pigeons as common targets along with American Robins, several kinds of jays, Northern Flicker, and quail, pheasants, grouse, and chickens. Cooper’s Hawks sometimes rob nests and also eat chipmunks, hares, mice, squirrels, and bats. Mammals are more common in diets of Cooper’s Hawks in the West.Back to top

    Nesting

    Nest Placement

    Nest TreeCooper’s Hawks build nests in pines, oaks, Douglas-firs, beeches, spruces, and other tree species, often on flat ground rather than hillsides, and in dense woods. Nests are typically 25-50 feet high, often about two-thirds of the way up the tree in a crotch or on a horizontal branch.

    Nest Description

    Males typically build the nest over a period of about two weeks, with just the slightest help from the female. Nests are piles of sticks roughly 27 inches in diameter and 6-17 inches high with a cup-shaped depression in the middle, 8 inches across and 4 inches deep. The cup is lined with bark flakes and, sometimes, green twigs.

    Nesting Facts
    Clutch Size:2-6 eggs
    Number of Broods:1 brood
    Egg Length:1.7-2.0 in (4.4-5.1 cm)
    Egg Width:1.4-1.6 in (3.5-4 cm)
    Incubation Period:30-36 days
    Nestling Period:27-34 days
    Egg Description:Pale blue to bluish white.
    Condition at Hatching:Covered in white down and weighing just 28 grams or 1 ounce, but able to crawl around nest.
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    Behavior

    Behavior Aerial ForagerCooper’s Hawks show the classic accipiter flight style: a few stiff wingbeats followed by short glides. But in pursuit of prey their flight becomes powerful, quick, and very agile, allowing the bird to thread its way through tree branches at top speed. Courting birds display by flying with slow wingbeats, then gliding with wings held in a V. Males make a bowing display to females after pairing and before beginning to build the nest.Back to top

    Conservation

    Conservation Low ConcernCooper's Hawk populations appear to have been stable between 1966 and 2015, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a breeding population of 700,000, with 89% spending at least some part of the year in the U.S., 22% in Mexico, and 8% breeding in Canada. The species rates an 7 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Cooper's Hawk is not on the 2016 State of North America's Birds' Watch List. These hawk's stable and positive population trends are a turnaround from the mid-twentieth century, when use of the pesticide DDT and widespread shooting greatly reduced populations. Back to top

    Backyard Tips

    If you put out seed for birds in your backyard, there’s a chance you’ll also attract the attention of a Cooper’s Hawk. While catching smaller birds is just doing what comes naturally for a Cooper’s Hawk, many of us would prefer not to share the responsibility for the deaths. If a Cooper’s Hawk takes up residence in your yard, you can take your feeders down for a few days and the hawk will move on.

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    Credits

    Curtis, Odette E., R. N. Rosenfield and J. Bielefeldt. 2006. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

    Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2015.2. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2015.

    Partners in Flight. 2017. Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

    Roth, A. J., G. S. Jones and T. W. French. 2002. Incidence of naturally-healed fractures in the pectoral bones of North American Accipiters. Raptor Res. no. 36 (3):229-230.

    Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon and W. A. Link. The North American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966-2015 (Version 2.07.2017). USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 2017.

    Sibley, David Allen. 2014. The Sibley guide to birds, second edition. Alfred A Knopf, New York.

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