Birdword: An Illustrated Guide to Some Tongue-Twisting Ornithological Terms
January 8, 2020
Birdword is a recurring feature in Living Bird magazine. Subscribe now.
They’re sometimes called technical terms, eight-dollar-words, jargon, or just plain gobbledygook. But hidden inside those multisyllabic ornithological utterances are keys to fascinating behaviors, time machines to take you back to ancient Greek and Latin, and sly insights to the minds of scientists at work. In this recurring feature, we break down a few of the “birdwords” we enjoy the most:
Tomial Tooth: n. A protrusion on the upper bill of some birds—including falcons, kites, and shrikes—reminiscent of a tooth. The “tooth” and the corresponding divot in the lower mandible allow the bill to act like a pair of shears, which may make it easier for the predators to sever the spinal cords of their vertebrate prey.
Bird Divorce: In many songbirds, such as cardinals, Blue Jays, and chickadees, males and females tend to pair up for multiple breeding seasons. Some may mate for life. But divorce is also common. In birds, divorce is when both members of a pair are still alive, but one or both birds break their existing pair bond, usually to re-pair with a different individual. Divorce is most often initiated by the female. Experiments have shown that many females divorce in order to re-pair with a higher-quality or more dominant male.
Allopreen (v.), allopreening (n.): the grooming of one bird by another of the same species; birds allopreen to clean feathers in hard-to-reach places and to strengthen pair bonds.
Zugunruhe: n. [German] migratory restlessness; when songbirds are ready to migrate, they literally cannot sit still.
Zygodactyl: adj. [Greek zygo (yoked, or paired) + dactyl (toed)] Having two toes facing forward and two facing backward. A feature of several orders of birds, including cuckoos, woodpeckers, and parrots.
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