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    Brewer's Blackbird Life History


    Habitat TownsBrewer’s Blackbirds live across the western half of North America, from below sea level in southern California to more than 8,000 feet in the Rocky Mountains. They occur in a huge variety of natural habitats – grasslands, marshes, meadows, woodland, coastal scrub, chaparral, and sagebrush – as well as many human-created habitats. These include lawns, golf courses, parks, city streets, agricultural fields, and power line rights-of-way.Back to top


    Food SeedsBrewer’s Blackbirds eat mostly seeds and grains, but like many small birds they also eat lots of insects while they’re plentiful in summer – sometimes catching them in midair, or picking them off the backs of livestock. In towns, parks, and outdoor cafés, these birds will eat almost anything that’s not closely guarded. They’ve also been recorded eating small frogs, young voles, and a few kinds of nestling birds ranging from Brewer’s Sparrows to young Ring-necked Pheasants. Around marshes, you may even see them walk on lily pads to hunt aquatic insects.Back to top


    Nest Placement

    Nest ShrubBrewer’s Blackbirds nest in colonies of a few to more than 100 pairs. After the first few females have chosen nest sites, others arrive and pick among nearby offerings. In some years this means you might find colonies in low shrubs; other years the same birds might nest in treetops. The birds typically nest in shrubs or trees near water, but may also nest in reeds and cattails or, occasionally, on the ground or in tree cavities.

    Nest Description

    Females build the nest cup from plant stems and a few twigs lined with fine dried grasses, rootlets, and hair. Sometimes they use mud or manure to cement the materials. The whole process takes 5-10 days, and the finished nest is about 6 inches across and 2 inches deep.

    Nesting Facts
    Clutch Size:3-7 eggs
    Number of Broods:1-2 broods
    Egg Length:0.9-1.1 in (2.3-2.9 cm)
    Egg Width:0.7-0.8 in (1.7-2 cm)
    Incubation Period:11-17 days
    Nestling Period:12-16 days
    Egg Description:Pale gray to greenish white, clouded or spotted with brown, pink, yellow, violet, and gray.
    Condition at Hatching:Naked except for sparse gray or black down; eyes closed; weighing about an eighth of an ounce.
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    Behavior Ground ForagerBrewer’s Blackbirds feed on the ground and usually in the open, but perch much higher, often on telephone or power lines. They often flock with other species, including grackles, Red-winged Blackbirds, cowbirds, and starlings. Male Brewer’s Blackbirds watch over colonies by sitting at guard perches. They meet hawks, owls, gulls, and other predators with an alarm call, diving at and sometimes striking them to make them leave. Paired birds stop associating with each other after the nesting season ends, but typically reunite the next year if both birds return after winter.Back to top


    Conservation Common Bird in Steep DeclineAlthough they are common within their range, Brewer's Blackbirds populations declined by over 2% per year between 1966 and 2014 (amounting to a cumulative decline of 69 percent), according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates the global breeding population at 20 million, with 74% spending part of the year in the U.S., 26% in Canada, and 25% wintering Mexico. They rate a 9 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, and the 2014 State of the Birds Report lists them as a Common Bird in Steep Decline. Various hazards facing the species include shooting, trapping, and poisoning (measures aimed at protecting agricultural crops), and collisions with windows and other structures. But in general, human activities such as agriculture and settlement have created places for Brewer’s Blackbirds to live.Back to top

    Backyard Tips

    Brewer’s Blackbirds readily come to feeders, though they’re a bit clumsy when perching. You’re likely to get the best results by scattering seed on the ground or using an open platform feeder. Find out more about what this bird likes to eat and what feeder is best by using the Project FeederWatch Common Feeder Birds bird list.

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    Dunne, Pete. 2006. Pete Dunne's essential field guide companion: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

    Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2015.2. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2015.

    Martin, Stephen G. 2002. Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

    North American Bird Conservation Initiative. 2014. The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

    Partners in Flight. 2017. Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

    Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2013 (Version 1.30.15). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center 2014b. Available from

    Sibley, David Allen. 2014. The Sibley guide to birds, second edition. Alfred A Knopf, New York.

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