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Philadelphia Vireo Life History


Habitat ForestsBreeds in early and mid-successional deciduous woods and parklands, especially among aspens, birches, alders, and ashes.Back to top


Food InsectsInsects and some fruit.Back to top


Nest Placement

Nest Tree

Nesting Facts

Clutch Size:3-4 eggs
Number of Broods:1 brood
Egg Length:0.7-0.8 in (1.78-2.17 cm)
Egg Width:0.5-0.6 in (1.3-1.53 cm)
Incubation Period:11-13 days
Nestling Period:14-15 days
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Behavior Foliage GleanerGleans prey from foliage, from perch or in flight.Back to top


Conservation Low ConcernPhiladelphia Vireo populations appear to have increased between 1966 and 2014, according to the North American Breeding Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 4 million birds, with 1% breeding in the U.S., 99% in Canada, and 37% migrating through or wintering in Mexico. The species rates a 9 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. It is a U.S.-Canada Stewardship species, and is not on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List.Back to top


Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. (2019). Longevity records of North American birds. Version 1019 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2019.

Moskoff, William and Scott K. Robinson. (2011). Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

North American Bird Conservation Initiative. (2014). The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2013 (Version 1.30.15). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center (2014b). Available from

Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA.

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