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Merlin Bird ID

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    Northern Fulmar Life History


    Habitat OceansBreeds on steep sea cliffs. Winters at sea from ice-covered northern waters to temperate zones.Back to top


    Food FishFish, squid, zooplankton, offal from fishing and whaling vessels, and other animal matter found at sea.Back to top


    Nest Placement

    Nest Cliff

    Nest Description

    Scrape on bare rock or pebbles.

    Nesting Facts
    Clutch Size:1 egg
    Egg Description:White.
    Condition at Hatching:Downy and helpless, eyes open.
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    Behavior DabblerTakes food while swimming or plunging at surface of water.Back to top


    Conservation Low ConcernThere is no immediate threat to Northern Fulmars, but high local density of breeding populations may make the species vulnerable to catastrophic changes in food supply or other environmental conditions. The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan estimates a continental population of 2.1 million breeders, rates them a 10 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, and lists them as a Species of Moderate Concern. They are not listed on the 2014 State of the Birds Report.Back to top


    Kushlan, J. A., M. J. Steinkamp, K. C. Parsons, J. Capp, M. A. Cruz, M. Coulter, I. Davidson, L. Dickson, N. Edelson, R. Elliott, R. M. Erwin, S. Hatch, S. Kress, R. Milko, S. Miller, K. Mills, R. Paul, R. Phillips, J. E. Saliva, W. Sydeman, J. Trapp, J. Wheeler and K. Wohl (2002). Waterbird conservation for the Americas: The North American waterbird conservation plan, version 1. Washington, DC, USA. 

    Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2015.2. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2015.

    Mallory, Mark L., Scott A. Hatch and David N. Nettleship. 2012. Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

    North American Bird Conservation Initiative. 2014. The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

    Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley guide to birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, USA.

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