Mississippi Kites breed in scattered areas of the southern and central United States, using very different habitats depending on the region. East of the Mississippi River, they nest in mature, diverse, low-lying forest—especially tracts that are large and unbroken but have nearby open habitat, such as pasture, cropland, waterways, country roads, or small lakes. In the Southwest and central plains, they nest in windbreak plantings within shortgrass and mixed prairie, in oak and mesquite savannah, and in cottonwoods and salt cedars lining rivers. Other woody plants in their nesting habitat include plum and juniper. Since the 1970s many western pairs have also nested in urban areas such as city parks and golf courses. During migration they travel through forest, savannah, pasture, dry plains, cropland (corn, coffee, and sugarcane), human-inhabited areas, and scrub habitat. Their South American wintering habitat is undocumented. Back to top
Mississippi Kites feed on medium-sized and large insects—such as beetles, leafhoppers, and grasshoppers—along with a variety of frogs, toads, lizards, turtles, snakes, small birds, terrestrial mammals, and bats. Often seen hunting in the company of other kites, they search for prey while soaring over woodlands, water, farmland, pasture, prairie, or (less frequently) from an exposed perch. With acrobatic maneuvers they extend one or both feet to grab prey from the air or from trees, shrubs, tall plants, and other objects on the ground, and they often eat their prize while still flying. Sometimes they forage on foot amid low vegetation, or even in shallow water. They may snag insects flushed by bison, people, horses, deer, and fire, and may scavenge roadkill.Back to top
Mississippi Kites nest in almost any tree species, as low as a few feet off the ground to more than 115 feet high. In the East, they prefer old-growth trees in large stands. In the Great Plains they use isolated trees and groves. They sometimes rebuild and reuse old nests, or build on squirrel nests.
The male and female both work on nest building, often at a leisurely pace, spending a few days to a few weeks on the project. The nest, which is 10–14 inches across and 5–6 inches high, consists of loosely woven twigs from many tree species. The shallow nest cup is heavily lined with leaves or Spanish moss, becoming nearly flat as it fills with debris over the course of the season.
|Clutch Size:||1-3 eggs|
|Egg Length:||1.6-1.7 in (4-4.3 cm)|
|Egg Width:||1.3-1.4 in (3.3-3.5 cm)|
|Incubation Period:||29-32 days|
|Nestling Period:||25-35 days|
|Egg Description:||Dull white.|
|Condition at Hatching:||Helpless and covered in white down, with open eyes.|
Though known for their graceful, acrobatic flight, Mississippi Kites also spend time foraging on the ground and in shallow water. They are social birds, often roosting and hunting in groups containing dozens of individuals, and nesting close to other pairs—this is particularly common in the Great Plains. They rarely show aggression to each other, but they are highly aggressive to human intruders and predators (including hawks, crows, and owls) throughout the breeding season. Both males and females will attack people and animals that come too close to the nest. Pairs stay together for the whole breeding season. They usually court before they arrive at nest areas, but occasionally can be seen soaring and swooping as a pair. In some cases a pair will accept a year-old bird as a nest helper.Back to top
Mississippi Kites are fairly common in their range, and populations were stable between 1966 and 2019, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 700,000 individuals, all of which breed in the United States and migrate through Mexico to their South American wintering grounds. The species rates a 9 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, indicating a species of low conservation concern. Southeastern U.S. populations declined through the early 20th century, in part from shooting and nest destruction. Since then, the species has stabilized and expanded in range, as human activities changed landscapes in the East and West: loggers in the Southeast created open areas suitable for foraging, and farmers in the western part of its range planted shelterbelt trees suitable for nesting. Nesting kites are tolerant of low-to-moderate levels of nearby disturbance (such as car traffic, human traffic, and farm machinery) but they may dive at (but rarely hit) people who come too close. This has created management and public relations challenges where kites have colonized urban areas. Management in the Great Plains includes educating people about urban nesting, maintaining shelterbelts, and protecting cottonwood habitat along rivers. In the southeastern U.S., proposed conservation measures include preserving large tracts of mature forests where kites nest and working with landowners to maintain open areas for foraging.Back to top
Crossley, R., J. Liguori, and B. Sullivan. (2013). The Crossley ID Guide: Raptors. Princeton University Press, New Jersery, USA.
Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. (2020). Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2020. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2020.
Parker, James W. (1999). Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Partners in Flight. (2020). Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2020.
Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. Link (2019). The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2019. Version 2.07.2019. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.
Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA.