Eastern Phoebes breed in wooded areas (particularly near water sources) that provide nesting sites—typically human-built structures such as eaves of buildings, overhanging decks, bridges, and culverts. Before these sites were common, phoebes nested on bare rock outcrops and still do occasionally. They seem to choose nest sites with woody understory vegetation nearby, possibly to make the nest site less visible or to provide perches near the nest for the adult. On migration they use wooded habitats and show somewhat less of an association with water. During winter, Eastern Phoebes occur in deciduous woods, more often near woodland edges and openings than in unbroken forests. Back to top
Flying insects make up the majority of the Eastern Phoebe’s diet. Common prey include wasps, beetles, dragonflies, butterflies and moths, flies, midges, and cicadas; they also eat spiders, ticks, and millipedes, as well as occasional small fruits or seeds. Back to top
Eastern Phoebes build nests in niches or under overhangs, where the young will be protected from the elements and fairly safe from predators. They avoid damp crevices and seem to prefer the nests to be close to the roof of whatever alcove they have chosen. Nests are typically less than 15 feet from the ground (in a few cases they have been built below ground level, in a well or cistern).
Only the female builds the nest, often while the male accompanies her. She constructs the nest from mud, moss, and leaves mixed with grass stems and animal hair. The nest may be placed on a firm foundation or it may adhere to a vertical wall using a surface irregularity as a partial foundation. The female may at first need to hover in place while she adds enough of a mud base to perch on. Nests can take 5–14 days to build and are about 5 inches across when finished. The nest cup is 2.5 inches across and 2 inches deep. Unlike most birds, nests are often reused in subsequent years—and sometimes used by Barn Swallows in some years.
|Clutch Size:||2-6 eggs|
|Number of Broods:||1-2 broods|
|Egg Length:||0.7-0.8 in (1.8-2.1 cm)|
|Egg Width:||0.6-0.7 in (1.4-1.7 cm)|
|Incubation Period:||15-16 days|
|Nestling Period:||16-20 days|
|Egg Description:||White, sometimes speckled with reddish brown|
|Condition at Hatching:||Helpless, eyes, closed, with sparse gray down.|
Eastern Phoebes sit alertly on low perches, often twitching their tails as they look out for flying insects. When they spot one, they abruptly leave their perch on quick wingbeats, and chase down their prey in a quick sally—often returning to the same or a nearby perch. Less often, they hover to pick insects or seeds from foliage. Phoebes rarely occur in groups, and even mated pairs spend little time together. Males sing their two-parted, raspy song throughout the spring and aggressively defend their territory from others of their Eastern Phoebes, though they tolerate other species. Both sexes, but particularly the female, attempt to defend the nest against such predators as snakes, jays, crows, chipmunks, mice, and House Wrens.Back to top
Eastern Phoebe populations were stable overall between 1966 and 2015, with small declines in Canada, and small increases in the U.S., according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 32 million with 76% spending some part of the year in the U.S., 33% wintering in Mexico, and 24% breeding in Canada. The species rates an 8 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Eastern Phoebe is not on the 2016 State of North America's Birds' Watch List. Historically, phoebe numbers and range increased as people spread across the landscape and built structures the birds could use as nest sites. Many people enjoy having phoebes nesting nearby, but sometimes homeowners remove nests out of concerns over sanitation or general appearance, as also happens with birds such as American Robins and Barn Swallows. Even if there are suitable structures for nest sites, phoebes also depend on low woody plants for foraging perches, so clearing of understory plants can reduce habitat quality for them. Nest sites can be created in large circular culverts by adding nest platforms, and these have proven to be readily adopted by phoebes.Back to top
Consider putting up a nest box to attract a breeding pair. Make sure you put it up well before breeding season. Attach a guard to keep predators from raiding eggs and young. Find out more about nest boxes on our Attract Birds pages. You'll find plans for building a nest box of the appropriate size on our All About Birdhouses site.Back to top
Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. (2019). Longevity records of North American birds. Version 1019 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2019.
Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.
Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. Link (2017). The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015. Version 2.07.2017. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.
Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA.
Weeks Jr., Harmon P. (2011). Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.