Heavily exploited for eggs and meat in 1800s and early 1900s. Populations drastically declined, with some colonies eliminated. Currently American population is growing. The species rates an 8 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score and is not on the 2016 State of the Birds Watch List. The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan estimates between 750,000 and 760,000 breeding birds on the continent. A reintroduction program in Maine run by National Audubon Society was successful in creating new breeding colonies of the species in that state. For more information, visit Project Puffin.Back to top
Kushlan, J. A., M. J. Steinkamp, K. C. Parsons, J. Capp, M. A. Cruz, M. Coulter, I. Davidson, L. Dickson, N. Edelson, R. Elliott, R. M. Erwin, S. Hatch, S. Kress, R. Milko, S. Miller, K. Mills, R. Paul, R. Phillips, J. E. Saliva, W. Sydeman, J. Trapp, J. Wheeler and K. Wohl. 2002. Waterbird conservation for the Americas: The North American waterbird conservation plan, version 1. Washington, D.C.: Waterbird Conservation for the Americas.
Lowther, Peter E., Antony W. Diamond, Stephen W. Kress, Gregory J. Robertson and Keith Russell. 2002. Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2015.2. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2015.
Sibley, David Allen. 2014. The Sibley guide to birds, second edition. Alfred A Knopf, New York.