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Merlin Bird ID

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    Plumbeous Vireo Life History


    Habitat ForestsMontane coniferous and mixed forests, and riparian woodlands in arid intermontane basins.Back to top


    Food InsectsInsects, some fruit in winter.Back to top


    Nest Placement

    Nest Tree

    Nest Description

    Open cup suspended by rim from a fork of a branch of a tree or sapling. Woven of spider web, bark strips, grasses, rootlets, and hair, decorated with cocoons, lichens, moss, and catkins. Inner lining of grasses and fine rootlets.

    Nesting Facts
    Clutch Size:3-5 eggs
    Egg Description:Creamy white with sparse dark spots around larger end.
    Condition at Hatching:Naked and pink, with eyes closed.
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    Behavior Foliage GleanerGleans insects from twigs and foliage. Forages in slow and deliberate manner. Some hovering and flycatching.Back to top


    Conservation Low ConcernPlumbeous Vireo populations are declining. The North American Breeding Bird Survey estimates a decline of over 3% per year between 1966 and 2014, resulting in a cumulative decline of 79% during that time. Partners in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 3 million birds, with 73% spending at least part of the year in the U.S., and 82% in Mexico. The species rates a 10 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. Plumbeous Vireo is not on the 2014 State of the Birds Watch List.Back to top


    Goguen, Christopher B. and David R. Curson. 2012. Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

    Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2015.2. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2015.

    North American Bird Conservation Initiative. 2014. The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.

    Partners in Flight. 2017. Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.

    Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2013 (Version 1.30.15). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center 2014b. Available from

    Sibley, David Allen. 2014. The Sibley guide to birds, second edition. Alfred A Knopf, New York.

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