- 4.3–5.1 in
- 5.9 in
- 0.4–0.4 oz
- Smaller than a Carolina Wren; chickadee-sized.
- Chivirín saltapared (Spanish)
- Troglodyte familier (French)
- The House Wren has one of the largest ranges of any songbird in the New World. It breeds from Canada through the West Indies and Central America, southward to the southernmost point of South America.
- House Wrens nest inside tree holes and nest boxes. As the season progresses their nests can become infested with mites and other parasites that feed on the wren nestlings. Perhaps to fight this problem, wrens often add spider egg sacs into the materials they build their nests from. In lab studies, once the spiders hatched, they helped the wrens by devouring the nest parasites.
- A House Wren weighs about as much as two quarters, but it’s a fierce competitor for nest holes. Wrens will harass and peck at much larger birds, sometimes dragging eggs and young out of a nest site they want – even occasionally killing adult birds. In some areas they are the main source of nest failure for bluebirds, Tree Swallows, Prothonotary Warblers, and chickadees.
- For House Wren eggs, temperature inside the nest box can be critical to survival. If a sun-drenched nest box warms above about 106 degrees Fahrenheit for an hour, the eggs will begin to die. If a cold snap chills a nest below about 65 degrees Fahrenheit for more than a day it can also doom the eggs.
- Male House Wrens returning north to breed in their first year are more likely to settle close to an established male than farther from it. Experienced males tend to settle farther apart. Young males may take clues from more experienced males about what areas are good nesting sites.
- The oldest recorded House Wren was at least 9 years old, when it was recaptured and rereleased during banding operations in New York in 1993, the same state where it had been banded.
House Wrens have a huge geographic range, and they live in many habitats, so long as they feature trees, shrubs, and tangles interspersed with clearings. Examples range from eastern deciduous forests and southern swamps to western conifer forests and aspen groves as high as 10,000 feet elevation. Because they're cavity nesters, House Wrens thrive around buildings, yards, farms, and other human habitations with their many nooks and crannies.
Eats a wide variety of insects and spiders, including beetles, caterpillars, earwigs, and daddy longlegs, as well as smaller numbers of more mobile insects such as flies, leafhoppers, and springtails. Also eats snail shells, probably for the calcium they contain and to provide grit for digestion.
- Clutch Size
- 3–10 eggs
- Number of Broods
- 1-2 broods
- Egg Length
- 0.6–0.7 in
- Egg Width
- 0.4–0.6 in
- Incubation Period
- 9–16 days
- Nestling Period
- 15–17 days
- Egg Description
- White, pink-white, or grayish, speckled or blotched with reddish brown.
- Condition at Hatching
- Naked, pink, and basically immobile, eyes closed, with a couple of dozen wispy down feathers scattered over back and head.
House Wrens pile twigs into the cavities they choose to nest in, either to make a bed on which to build a soft-lined cup, or sometimes mounded up into a barrier between nest and entrance, seemingly to protect the nest from cold weather, predators, or cowbirds. The cup itself is built into a depression in the twigs and lined with just a few grams (less than 0.25 oz) of feathers, grasses and other plant material, animal hair, spider egg sacs, string, snakeskin, and discarded plastic.
House Wrens nest in old woodpecker holes, natural crevices, and nest boxes (or discarded tins, shoes, etc.) provided by humans. This bird’s association with open woodland is reflected in its choice of nest sites: it rarely uses nest sites more than 100 feet from woody vegetation, but also avoids heavily wooded nest sites where it’s hard to see predators coming. Despite their small size, they can be fierce competitors for nest sites, sometimes evicting a larger species and claiming its cavity after the bird has already begun nesting.
© René Corado / WFVZ
© René Corado / WFVZ
A busy forager in low tree branches and shrubs. You’ll occasionally see these birds flit across openings with steady, level flight, or investigating the ground with quick hops. Male House Wrens start building several nests at once in hopes of persuading a female to mate with him. Pairs typically break up by the end of each nesting season and choose new partners the next year. House Wrens are aggressive. Single males sometimes compete for females even after a pair has begun nesting. In about half of these contests the outsider succeeds in displacing his rival, at which point he usually discards any existing eggs or nestlings and begins a new family with the female.
House Wren populations have experienced some regional declines, but generally populations have been stable and slightly increased between 1966 and 2015, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Partner's in Flight estimates a global breeding population of 160 million with 19% spending some part of the year in the U.S., 9% in Mexico, and 8% breeding in Canada. The species rates a 5 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score. House Wren is not on the 2016 State of North America's Birds' Watch List.
- Johnson, L. Scott. 1998. House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). In The Birds of North America, No. 380 (A. Poole, Ed.). The Birds of North America Online, Ithaca, New York.
- Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook. Simon & Schuster Inc., New York.
- North American Bird Conservation Initiative. 2016. The State of North
America’s Birds 2016. Environment and Climate Change Canada: Ottawa, Ontario.
- Partners in Flight. 2012. Species assessment database.
- USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2016. Longevity Records of North American Birds.
- USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2015. North American Breeding Bird Survey 1966–2015 Analysis.
Short to medium-distance migrant. Most House Wrens in North America migrate to the southern U.S. and Mexico for winter.
Wrens love brush piles for cover, protection, and a source of insects. If you need to prune trees or cut brush in your yard, consider heaping the cuttings into a pile as a safe place for birds to gather. More tips for attracting birds
Consider putting up a nest box to attract a breeding pair. Make sure you put it up well before breeding season. Attach a guard to keep predators from raiding eggs and young. Find out more about nest boxes on our Attract Birds pages. You'll find plans for building a nest box of the appropriate size on our All About Birdhouses site.
Find This Bird
As with many birds, your ears can help lead you to House Wren sightings. Start in the right habitat: backyards, parks, or open woods, then listen. The song can be hard to learn at first, because the notes are nondescript and variable, and because there’s simply so much of it – so loud and insistent - that it’s hard to believe such a small bird is making it.
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Listen to the songs of House Wrens and watch video clips from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology's Macaulay Library archive
House Wren from Bent's Life Histories of North American Birds (1948)
Find in-depth information on House Wrens and other hundreds of other birds for as little as $5 in The Birds of North America Online from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists' Union
House Music: Sizing up the vocal virtuoso in your backyard. Story in BirdScope